Geographical extent[ edit ] British India in The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from until its independence in The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as Presidencies and provinces of British India until and used the rupee as their unit of currency.
Military history of India India has one of the longest military histories, dating back several millennia. The first reference to armies is found in the Vedas as well as the epics Ramayana and Mahabaratha. Classical Indian texts on archery in particular, and martial arts in general are known as Dhanurveda.
Ancient to medieval era Indian maritime history dates back 5, years. There is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava, which gives the ship stability in storm conditions.
A compass, Matsya yantra was used for navigation in the fourth and fifth century AD. The earliest known reference to an organisation devoted to ships in ancient India is in the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BC.
Powerful militaries included those of the: The term, nava dvipantaragamanam Sanskrit for "sailing to other lands by ships," i. Sea lanes between India and neighbouring lands were used for trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread influence of Indian Culture on other societies.
The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and Kerala fleets were expanded, and became the most powerful Naval Forces in the subcontinent, defeating European navies at various times See the Battle of Colachel.
The fleet review of the Maratha navy, at which the ships Pal and Qalbat participated, took place at the Ratnagiri fort. British India to Main articles: One million Indian troops served overseas; 62, died and another 67, were wounded. In total, 74, Indian soldiers died during the war.
Indian divisions were also sent to Egypt, Gallipoli and nearlyserved in Mesopotamia against the Ottoman Empire. InEngineer Sub-lieutenant D.
Mukherji became the first Indian to receive a commission in the Royal Indian Marine. Though the gradual "Indianisation" of the officer corps began after WWI, at the outbreak of war inthere were no Indian flag, general or air officers in the armed services.
The highest-ranking Indian officers were those serving in the non-combatant Indian Medical Servicewho held no rank higher than colonel; in the regular Indian Army, there were no Indian officers above the rank of major. By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2.
However, the bulk of the Indian Army was committed to fighting the Japanese Army, first during the British defeats in Malaya and the retreat from Burma to the Indian border; later, after resting and refitting for the victorious advance back into Burma, as part of the largest British Empire army ever formed.
These campaigns cost the lives of over 36, Indian servicemen, while another 34, were wounded; 67, became prisoners of war. Their valour was recognised with the award of some 4, decorations, and 38 members of the Indian Army were awarded the Victoria Cross or the George Cross.
Shrinagesh and Kodandera Subayya Thimayyaall of whom would subsequently command the Indian Army, achieved distinction as the first Indian battalion and brigade commanders. Insailors of the Royal Indian Navy mutinied on board ships and in shore establishments.
A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20, sailors were involved in the rebellion, which had an impact across India. Dominion of India — The period immediately following Indian independence was a traumatic time for India and her armed services.
Along with the newly independent India, the Indian Armed Forces were forcibly divided between India and Pakistan, with ships, divisions and aircraft allocated to the respective Dominions.
During this period, the armed forces of India were involved in a number of significant military operations, notably the Indo-Pakistani War of and Operation Polothe code name of a military operation in September where the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union.
Republic of India to present Main article: Military operations of India Upon India becoming a sovereign republic on 26 Januarysome of the last vestiges of British rule - rank badges, imperial crowns, British ensigns and "Royal" monikers - were dropped and replaced with the Indian tricolour and the Lion Capital of Asoka.INDIAN PHOTOGRAPHY FESTIVAL - HYDERABAD The Indian Photography Festival (IPF) - Hyderabad, a Not-For-Profit initiative of Light Craft Foundation, is an international photography festival, showcasing a wide range of photography from India and around the globe with a series of events, including talks and discussions, portfolio .
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Essay: Kashmir's everlasting insurgency. Hilal Mir The Indian army has established an orphanage inside a walled garrison in the heart of the capital, Srinagar. The orphanage is called Muskaan, or “smile”.
Former Miss Universe Sushmita Sen once attended a programme organised for the orphans. Show people, places and other topics in.