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The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space.
The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U. Among the fundamental principles of the state doctrine in these countries is the assertion that the connection between the two phenomena is very simple.
On the one hand, it is asserted, there is a scientific theory which proves that after achieving a definite level in the development of productive forces, mankind will pass over to a new historic formation; this theory points the way to the most rational paths for such a transition.
And on the other hand, we are assured, there is the embodiment of this scientific prognosis, its confirmation. As an example of quite a different point of view we cite H. Wells, who visited Russia in and, though infected by the worship of socialism, fashionable then as now, nevertheless almost instinctively refused to accept Marxism, in this sense reflecting the antipathy toward all scholastic theories typical of an Englishman.
In his book Russia in the Shadows, Wells writes: The state system established as a result is therefore defined and shaped by the necessity of holding power. Since these tasks are entirely different, the official theory and the actual implementation have nothing in common. It would be incautious to take either of these assertions on faith.
On the contrary, it would be desirable, first, to study both "socialisms" independently, without any a priori hypotheses, and only then attempt to come to conclusions about the connections that exist between them.
We shall begin with socialism understood as a doctrine, as an appeal. All such doctrines and as we shall see, there were many of them have a common core--they are based on the complete rejection of the existing social structure.
They call for its destruction and paint a picture of a more just and happy society in which the solution to all the fundamental problems of the times would be found. Furthermore, they propose concrete ways of achieving this goal. In religious literature such a system of views is referred to as belief in the thousand-year Kingdom of God on earth--chiliasm.
Borrowing this terminology, we shall designate the socialist doctrines of this type as "chiliastic socialism. In doing so, we shall attempt to extract a picture of the future society envisaged, leaving to one side for the moment the motivation as well as the concrete means recommended for achieving the ideal.
The first example takes us to Athens in B. Here he depicts a teaching fashionable in the Athens of the time. The plot is as follows: They use this power to introduce a series of measures, which are expounded in a dialogue between Praxagora, the leader of the women, and her husband, Blepyros.
Here are several quotations. No more the division between Rich and Poor. My initial move will be to communalize land, and money, and all other property, personal and real.Writing is an art form created by past experiences, future hopes, fantasies, and limitless imagination. It brings feelings, knowledge, adventure, mystery, and foreign times and places to life.
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Editorial Note. It is ten years since Virginia Woolf published her last volume of collected essays, The Common Reader: Second benjaminpohle.com the time of her death she was already engaged in getting together essays for a further volume, which she proposed to publish in the autumn of or the spring Of Seeing as this is an English course, the second aim will be to develop skills necessary for students to be effective readers and writers.
The cultivation of these abilities will not only aid students in their exploration of violence in literature, but in any other analytical work they may need to do in the future. LETTERS OF CATHERINE BENINCASA. ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA AS SEEN IN HER LETTERS.
I. The letters of Catherine Benincasa, commonly known as St.
Catherine of Siena, have become an Italian classic; yet perhaps the first thing in them to strike a reader is their unliterary character.