This means that, since she has no skin pigment, under ordinary environmental conditions she is completely white with pink eyes. Alba is not green all the time. She only glows when illuminated with the correct light.
Since the announcement in February of the first successful cloning of a mammal Dolly the sheepseveral other species of mammals have been cloned. Although a cloned human child has yet to be born, and although the animal experiments have had low rates of success, the production of functioning mammalian cloned offspring suggests that the eventual cloning of humans must be considered a serious possibility.
In NovemberAmerican researchers claimed to have produced the first cloned human embryos, though they reportedly reached only a six-cell stage before they stopped dividing and died. In addition, several fertility specialists, both here and abroad, have announced their intention to clone human beings.
The United States Congress has twice taken up the matter, in and again inwith the House of Representatives in July passing a strict ban on all human cloning, including the production of cloned human embryos. As of this writing, several cloning-related bills are under consideration in the Senate.
Many other nations have banned human cloning, and the United Nations is considering An examination of the reality of cloning international convention on the subject. The debate over human cloning became further complicated in when researchers were able, for the first time, to isolate human embryonic stem cells.
Many scientists believe that these versatile cells, capable of becoming any type of cell in the body, hold great promise for understanding and treating many chronic diseases and conditions. Some scientists also believe that stem cells derived from cloned human embryos, produced explicitly for such research, might prove uniquely useful for studying many genetic diseases and devising novel therapies.
Public reaction to the prospect of cloning-for-biomedical-research has been mixed: What Is at Stake? The intense attention given to human cloning in both its potential uses, for reproduction as well as for research, strongly suggests that people do not regard it as just another new technology.
Instead, we see it as something quite different, something that touches fundamental aspects of our humanity.
The notion of cloning raises issues about identity and individuality, the meaning of having children, the difference between procreation and manufacture, and the relationship between the generations. It also raises new questions about the manipulation of some human beings for the benefit of others, the freedom and value of biomedical inquiry, our obligation to heal the sick and its limitsand the respect and protection owed to nascent human life.
Finally, the legislative debates over human cloning raise large questions about the relationship between science and society, especially about whether society can or should exercise ethical and prudential control over biomedical technology and the conduct of biomedical research.
Rarely has such a seemingly small innovation raised such big questions. Our Point of Departure As Members of the President's Council on Bioethics, we have taken up the larger ethical and social inquiry called for in the NBAC and NAS reports, with the aim of advancing public understanding and informing public policy on the matter.
We have attempted to consider human cloning both for producing children and for biomedical research within its larger human, technological, and ethical contexts, rather than to view it as an isolated technical development.
We focus first on the broad human goods that it may serve as well as threaten, rather than on the immediate impact of the technique itself. By our broad approach, our starting on the plane of human goods, and our open spirit of inquiry, we hope to contribute to a richer and deeper understanding of what human cloning means, how we should think about it, and what we should do about it.
On some matters discussed in this report, Members of the Council are not of one mind. Rather than bury these differences in search of a spurious consensus, we have sought to present all views fully and fairly, while recording our agreements as well as our genuine diversity of perspectives, including our differences on the final recommendations to be made.
By this means, we hope to help policymakers and the general public appreciate more thoroughly the difficulty of the issues and the competing goods that are at stake. Fair and Accurate Terminology There is today much confusion about the terms used to discuss human cloning, regarding both the activity involved and the entities that result.
The Council stresses the importance of striving not only for accuracy but also for fairness, especially because the choice of terms can decisively affect the way questions are posed, and hence how answers are given.
We have sought terminology that most accurately conveys the descriptive reality of the matter, in order that the moral arguments can then proceed on the merits. We have resisted the temptation to solve the moral questions by artful redefinition or by denying to some morally crucial element a name that makes clear that there is a moral question to be faced.
On the basis of 1 a careful analysis of the act of cloning, and its relation to the means by which it is accomplished and the purposes it may serve, and 2 an extensive critical examination of alternative terminologies, the Council has adopted the following definitions for the most important terms in the matter of human cloning: A form of reproduction in which offspring result not from the chance union of egg and sperm sexual reproduction but from the deliberate replication of the genetic makeup of another single individual asexual reproduction.
The asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being. It would be accomplished by introducing the nuclear material of a human somatic cell donor into an oocyte egg whose own nucleus has been removed or inactivated, yielding a product that has a human genetic constitution virtually identical to the donor of the somatic cell.
This procedure is known as "somatic cell nuclear transfer," or SCNT. We have declined to use the terms "reproductive cloning" and "therapeutic cloning.
Production of a cloned human embryo, formed for the proximate purpose of initiating a pregnancy, with the ultimate goal of producing a child who will be genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing individual.
Production of a cloned human embryo, formed for the proximate purpose of using it in research or for extracting its stem cells, with the ultimate goals of gaining scientific knowledge of normal and abnormal development and of developing cures for human diseases."The exploration and ultimate colonization of the solar system is the only future worthy of truly great nations at this time in history.
The Soviets, who cannot even feed themselves, seem to understand this.". Dec 22, · Human cloning is an issue involved in much debate, with the majority view being that cloning should not be allowed to continue.
hile the argument against human cloning is persuasive, it is also an argument based on fear and misunderstanding rather than reality. The negative view of human cloning is based on a negative perception of it based almost entirely in speculation.
An honest, complete autonomy-based evaluation of human cloning would have to consider the autonomy of all persons involved, including the people produced through cloning, and not just the autonomy of researchers and people desiring to have clones.
Cloning animals from adult somatic cells, which make up most of the body, is difficult because the DNA from the adult cells need to be reprogrammed, or set back to their embryonic state.
An ethical examination of cloning ou are a perioperative nurse Y at Cyberspace Medical Cen- ter. Although you have been the circulating nurse on previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) proce- dures, today’s assignment is dif- ferent-the rumor mill says the surgeon will be using cloned.
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