An introduction to the history of baritone and its origins in 18th century

What Thomas Dorsey and his friends kept as the defining attributes of gospel music - the call-and-response format, ample room for improvisation, rhythm, frequent use of the flatted seventh and third in melodies - remain true even today. The elements introduced by later musical forms, such as close harmonies barbershop quartetsa sense of professionalism jubilee quartetsshowmanship minstrelsythe regular use of an aab rhyming scheme, and a pronounce beat the blues all endure, but are tacked on the spine of the original spirituals, which are for the most part irrevocably linked to their African forebears". Here is a compilation which attempts to answer these questions looking back at the history of church music, African roots, African American slavery, gospel music's evolution, seminal figures of the gospel music genre, and finally a synopsis of gospel music styles up to the present day.

An introduction to the history of baritone and its origins in 18th century

The largest wave of Portuguese immigration lasted about 30 years, and 11, Portuguese immigrants would arrive in its first decade. These instruments are all in a family of small guitar-like instruments dating from the 18th century.
Bel canto - Wikipedia History of the term and its various definitions[ edit ] The bel canto-era composer Gioachino Rossini: Late 19th- and 20th-century sources "would lead us to believe that bel canto was restricted to beauty and evenness of tone, legato phrasing, and skill in executing highly florid passages, but contemporary documents [those of the late 18th and early 19th centuries] describe a multifaceted manner of performance far beyond these confines.
Bel canto - Wikipedia A Brief History of the Euphonium by Dr. The most frequently asked question of a musician is "What instrument do you play?

It may have various sections and might on occasion last… General characteristics Musical instruments have been used since earliest times for a variety of purposes, ranging from the entertainment of concert audiences to the accompaniment of dances, ritualswork, and medicine.

The use of instruments for religious ceremonies has continued down to the present day, though at various times they have been suspect because of their secular associations. The many references to instruments in the Old Testament are evidence of the fact that they played an important part in Jewish worship until for doctrinal reasons they were excluded.

It is also clear that the early Christians in the eastern Mediterranean used instruments in their services, since the practice was severely condemned by ecclesiastics, who insisted that the references to instruments in the Psalms were to be interpreted symbolically.

Although instruments continue to be banned in Islamic mosques but not in religious processions or Sufi ritual and in the traditional Eastern Orthodox church, they play important roles in the ritual of most other societies.

For example, Buddhist cultures are rich in instruments, particularly bells and drums and in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, wind instruments as well. Belief in the magical properties of instruments is found in many societies. The power of the shofar is illustrated by the story of Joshua at the siege of Jericho: In India, according to legendwhen the deity Krishna played the flute, the rivers stopped flowing and the birds came down to listen.

Technological developments

The birds are said to have done the same in 14th-century Italy when the composer Francesco Landini played his organetto, or portative organ. In China, instruments were identified with the points of the compass, with the seasons, and with natural phenomena.

The Melanesian bamboo flute was a charm for rebirth. Many of the instruments used in medieval Europe came from western Asia, and they have retained some of their original symbolism.

For example, trumpetslong associated with military operations, had a ceremonial function in the establishment of European kings and nobles and were, in fact, regarded as a sign of nobility.

Trumpet fanfares, heard on ceremonial occasions in the modern world, are a survival of medieval practice. Men in traditional dress playing alphorns at a festival in the town of Mannlichen, Switzerland. They played only one pitch and then evolved into more complex forms.

However, it appears that bone flutes from Neanderthal caves had finger holes, and recent archaeological finds in China included bone flutes from bc that not only have seven finger holes but an additional aperture that may have been drilled to correct a poorly placed hole.

Thus, early humans appear to have been just as sensitive to pitch and tone colour as were most other sentient creatures, such as birds, cats, dogs, and whales.

None of the sounds they heard or made moved from simple to complex. The stretched string of a bow can produce several pitches when it is beaten, and the string can be stopped at points along its length to produce varied sounds.

In addition, a resonator such as a pot or gourd is often used to increase the volume of the sound. A tube of bamboo can become musical when it is struck on the ground, and a set of different-sized tubes can produce a melodic and rhythmic ensemble.

Lifting strips of the bark from a tube and adding bridges under the strips creates a melodic zitherfor which each strip produces a separate pitch. The sound can be enhanced by placing one end of the tube in a resonator, whether a gourd or a tin can.

In sum, the complexity of music depends less on technology than on human imagination.

An introduction to the history of baritone and its origins in 18th century

Lamellaphone with bamboo tongues, from central Africa; in the James Blades Collection. Reid Music Library, The University of Edinburgh, gift of James Blades The first step in the building of any instrument is the selection and preparation of material.

An introduction to the history of baritone and its origins in 18th century

Wood used for wind or stringed instruments needs to be seasoned, as do the reeds used in oboes, clarinets, saxophones, and related instruments. Metals, which are widely used for strings, bells, cymbals, gongs, trumpets, and horns, must be manufactured and cast—often originally by secret processes.

Next, the construction and tuning of all instruments require skill and craftsmanship: All of these involve accurate workmanship from experts in wood and metal and, in many instances, a knowledge of the mathematics of sound.

A Sakha group from eastern Siberia playing the khomus, a type of Jew's harp. Sovfoto The mathematical basis of accurate tuning systems has been the subject of philosophical and scientific speculation since ancient times; nevertheless, no single system has been deemed perfect see also tuning and temperament.

All practical tuning systems involve a series of compromises, a fact that instrument makers have known for centuries.

General characteristics

The growth of instrumental playing in 16th-century Europe stimulated the production of instruments to be used not merely for ceremonial and official entertainment but also for social occasions and private pleasure. From this time, records began to be kept of the names of makers, many of whom established family businesses that lasted for several generations.

These include, for example, Andrea Amati 16th centurya violin maker in Cremona, Italy; Hans Ruckers late 16th centurya harpsichord maker in Antwerp, Belg.

In all literate cultures there are known families or guilds of instrument makers, e. Around the world, instrument makers have long signed their products.

History of the violin - Wikipedia

Although similar respectful positions are held by instrument makers in cultures without a written record, their reputation is far less likely to spread beyond their particular time and place.

Typically ornate Hardanger fiddle detaila Norwegian folk instrument. Their contribution to both the history of music and the history of musical instruments has been enormous and little appreciated. The older makers of instruments were craftsmen who took delight in the appearance of their work. In some cases, additions are purely decorative, as when pictures were painted on the inside of harpsichord lids or elaborate patterns were carved onto Indian vinas or inlaid into Persian lutes and drums.The History of the Guitar.

The guitar is a plucked stringed musical instrument that probably originated in Spain early in the 16th century, deriving from the guitarra latina, a late-medieval instrument with a waisted body and four strings. The early tied-on gut frets were replaced by built-on ivory or metal frets in the 18th century.

The. While the name "Euphonium" is not familiar to many, this instrument with its beautiful rich tone is the chief tenor soloist in the military and concert band. The history of the Euphonium begins in the early 18th century when many string instruments had reached some state of perfection but most wind instruments were still in their infancy.

The baritone has a long history. It all started in the early 18th century with an instrument called the serpent.

Sorry! Something went wrong!

This snake-like tube was made of either wood, brass or silver, and its tuning wasn't good. It had six finger holes (valves wern't ivented yet) in the beginning, but later more we.

Musical instrument: Musical instrument, any device for producing musical sound. The principal types of such instruments, classified by the method of producing sound, are percussion, stringed, keyboard, wind, and electronic.

Learn more about the characteristics and . the introduction of a wide variety of graces and divisions into both arias and recitatives; French musicians and composers never embraced the more florid extremes of the 18th-century Italian bel canto style.

Bel Canto: A History . Bel canto (Italian for "beautiful singing" or "beautiful song", pronounced [ˌbɛl ˈkanto])—with several similar constructions (bellezze del canto, bell'arte del canto)—is a term with several meanings that relate to Italian singing..

The phrase was not associated with a "school" of singing until the middle of the 19th century, when writers in the early s used it nostalgically to.

A Brief History of the Euphonium by Dr. Brian Bowman