These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work. When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised. That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.
Search What is the Chicago Style Citation? Notes-Bibliography System NB is made up of footnotes or endnotes or bothand a bibliography Author-Date System consists of parenthetical author-date citations and a corresponding reference list including full publication information The style offers academic writers the choice between these two formats; choosing which system you are going to apply to your work will depend on your discipline and the type of sources you are citing.
If you are unsure which system you should be using, make sure you consult your tutor before you begin. The notes and bibliography system is primarily used in the humanities - including literature, history, and the arts - because it is a flexible style that accommodates unusual source types and opens up space for commentary on the sources cited.
A superscript number at the end of the sentence signals to the reader that a source has been used, and summary details of the source can be found using the numbered footnote at the bottom of the page.
Full details of the source information can be located in the bibliography, which is presented at the end of the essay in alphabetical order by author. Read more about creating footnotes here. The Chicago style citation also has an author-date variant, which is commonly used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences.
Sources are briefly cited in the text and enclosed within parentheses. This guide has been written to support students, writers and researchers by offering clear, well-considered advice on the usage of Chicago citations.
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Keep reading our comprehensive guide for practical advice and examples that will help you create each Chicago style citation with ease.
If you need further information or examples, consult The Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed. Notes-Bibliography System Formatting a footnote Rather than a parenthetical Chicago citation, you should insert a footnote to acknowledge your source material.
Insert a superscript number raised slightly above the line at the end of the sentence containing the source - begin with number 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper The superscript number should follow any punctuation mark full stops, parentheses and commas etc.
Do not put any punctuation after the number Each number must correspond to a matching number at the foot of the page - whilst note numbers in-text are set as superscript numbers, the notes themselves are full size Footnote generally lists the author first name firsttitle, and facts of publication enclosed in parenthesesin that order - each should be separated by commas.
Titles are capitalized, titles of books and journals are italicized, titles of smaller works e. Formatting a shortened note Whilst the first Chicago style citation for each source should include all relevant bibliographic information, if you cite the same source again you can use a shortened form of the note.
The short form need only include enough information to remind your reader of the full title, or to direct them to the appropriate entry in the bibliography Include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title of the work cited if more than four wordsand page number s in the Chicago citation If a work has two or three authors, cite in full the first time and subsequently give the last name of each; for more than three, the surname of the first author followed by et al.
You can cite it either parenthetically in-text or in subsequent notes by means of an abbreviation - e. Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway Ware: Wordsworth Editions,52 hereafter cited in text as Dalloway Formatting an endnote If you are drawing on multiple sources, a page cluttered with footnotes can overwhelm your reader.
Whilst readers of scholarly works generally prefer footnotes for ease of reference, endnotes are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your work.
Author-Date System If you are using the author-date system to format your Chicago style citations, you must indicate each source with a brief parenthetical citation: Include the last name of author and the year of publication in parentheses, with each element separated by a comma.
For instance, you may prefer to use a combination of footnotes and parenthetical author-date citations especially if you have an excess of notes - you could use author-date citations to indicate sources within the text, and numbered footnotes or endnotes to add comments.
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Creating My Bibliography and Reference List Each Chicago citation in the body of your written work should be directly keyed to a bibliography or reference list entry. Compiling a full list of all the source material that has contributed to your research and writing process is the perfect opportunity to show your reader the effort you have gone to in researching your chosen topic, ensuring that you get the grade you deserve.
Notes-Bibliography System Have you been wondering how to organize all of your fully-formatted Chicago style citations in a comprehensive list?
Author-Date System If you are adopting the author-date variant of Chicago style citations, read the above list for a guide on how to compile your reference list. There are just two differences from the notes-bibliography system: Chicago Format Examples 16th Edition Carefully follow these examples when compiling and formatting both your in-text citations and bibliography in order to avoid losing marks for citing incorrectly.
Notes-Bibliography System Each example in this section includes a numbered footnote, a shortened form of the note, and a corresponding bibliography entry.
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