Background and composition[ edit ] Chairman Mao Zedong is referenced in the song. In earlymedia coverage in the aftermath of the Tet Offensive spurred increased protests in opposition to the Vietnam Warespecially among university students. During his time in RishikeshLennon decided to write a song about the recent wave of social upheaval. He recalled, "I thought it was about time we spoke about it [revolution], the same as I thought it was about time we stopped not answering about the Vietnamese war.
Essentially an English phenomenon, later the Scots were also heavily engaged. Trade experienced three long periods of Commercial revolution, separated by virtual stagnation. Between and existing markets for English broadcloths and other woollens grew rapidly, because the importing regions became more prosperous and had greater purchasing power.
Revolution: Revolution, in social and political science, a major, sudden, and hence typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and structures. The term is used by analogy in such expressions as the Industrial Revolution, where it refers to a radical and profound change in economic. A revolution is a drastic political or social change that usually occurs relatively quickly.. Revolution may also refer to. This item: The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, by Robert S. Lopez Paperback $ Available to ship in days. Ships from and sold by benjaminpohle.com(3).
In the second period, —89, two general circumstances aided expansion. South European markets, previously the domain of Spanish and Italian industry, were won by the English and the Dutch in competition with one another.
The second general circumstance was the rise of virtually new trades because cheaper English re-exports of sugar, tobacco, Commercial revolution calicoes created fresh markets. The third period, —60, was linked to the growth of American and West Indian populations, production, and purchasing power, but also continued the advance of re-exports.
In the first period English woollen cloth exports were the bulwark of overseas trade, the wool trade declining sharply in the decade after In a period of inflation the quantity of cloth exported more than doubled by ; London gained at the expense of provincial ports, as trade with Antwerp grew and was controlled by the Company of Merchant Venturers.
Interruptions to the Antwerp trade caused by wars gradually brought this phase of growth to a halt, although English merchants trading with Hamburg accessed central European markets via the Elbe. The second expansion in the 17th cent.
Demand suddenly increased in Spain and was then supplemented from Portugal and Italy. The northern trade declined in relative importance, and by accounted for only half of English cloth exports compared with nine-tenths in the early 17th cent.
Trade with Iberia also reached the Spanish and Portuguese colonies and thus the market was enlarged. The English cloth industry responded rapidly to changes in fashion and produced a greater variety of light cloths and textile mixtures. A substantial trade in salted and dried cod from the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was an additional source of exports to catholic Europe.
Several new imports in the period — provided exceptional profit margins and an incentive to exploration and mercantile enterprise. In the 16th cent. Apart from wine, most imports were manufactures, bought in the Netherlands but produced in many parts of Europe. The gradual growth of British industry reduced the dependence on foreign manufactures in the 17th cent.
One exception was European linens until the Scots and the Irish, protected by the Navigation Laws and a rising tariff wall, learned to copy and outdo continental producers during the 18th cent.
Trade with the Baltic, mainly conducted in the 16th and early 17th cents. In years of bad harvests Baltic corn was a standby, but after new raw materials were much more important. Amounts of timber, potash, tar, pitch, flax, and hemp increased as the navy and merchant marine grew, and Swedish iron also became important after From the Mediterranean came not only more wine but also wool, oil, raisins, figs and oranges, Italian silks, and Levant goods, including raw silk, mohair, cotton, and dyestuffs.
The discoveries that Virginia could grow tobacco plants imported from Trinidad and that Brazilian sugar cane would flourish in the West Indies were fundamental to the later development of the Atlantic economy and of the triangular trade with Africa.
The East India Company began trading principally in pepper and then in cotton cloth; both tapped markets in Britain and Europe. Trade in slaves, sugar, coffee, tobacco, pepper, and oriental cottons underpinned the third great era of expansion in the 18th cent.
Liverpool, Bristol, and Glasgow benefited most from these developments. The Atlantic trade was controlled by merchant partnerships. If journeys were long or large capitals were required, the company form of organization was preferable. Once trade was established—even when companies claimed trading monopolies—the return to trading by partnerships was general.
The East India Company also survived and was much the most important in terms of trade and capital employed, but there were abortive attempts to displace it after In the 18th cent.Bibliography "Bedlington," Go Britain, benjaminpohle.com, 13 February Bellis, Mary, "Timeline of Textile Machinery," The Industrial.
‘commercial revolution’. This preceded major industrialization by two centuries and encompassed great upsurges in overseas trade with many consequences, not least the expansion of Britain's fleet. Essentially an English phenomenon, later the Scots were also heavily engaged.
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Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of .
Revolution: Revolution, in social and political science, a major, sudden, and hence typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and structures. The term is used by analogy in such expressions as the Industrial Revolution, where it refers to a radical and profound change in economic.
The Commercial Revolution consisted in the creation of a European economy based on trade, which began in the 11th century and lasted until it was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution in the midth century.
Beginning with the Crusades, Europeans rediscovered spices, silks, and other commodities rare in Europe.