An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference".
The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision. Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not.
Autocosmic Answers What is existing? Reality consists ultimately of matter and energy and their fundamentally lawlike and unwilled relations in space-time.
To exist is to have a causal relationship with the rest of the universe. The universe is the maximal set of circumstances that includes this statement and no subset of which is causally unrelated to the remainder. Humans do not know why the universe exists or what it is for.
The universe operates without supernatural intervention and according to lawlike regularities that can be understood through empirical investigation and without special intuition. Humans have no credible evidence of any supernatural agency or unity. Humans have no credible evidence that any minds enjoy eternal existence.
Knowledge is justified true belief. Truth is logical and parsimonious consistency with evidence and with other truth. Meaning is the context-sensitive connotation ultimately established by relevant denotation and use. All synthetic propositions including this one can only be known from experience and are subject to doubt.
A synthetic statement is propositionally meaningless if it is in principle neither falsifiable nor verifiable. A mind is any volition al conscious faculty for perception and cognition.
Minds and ideas consist ultimately of matter. Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information. Consciousness is awareness of self and environment. Intelligence is the ability to make, test, and apply inductions about perceptions of self and world.
There are no forms of reasoning or kinds of knowledge that are in principle inaccessible to regular intelligence. As autonomous living intellects, we persons value intelligence and life and the autonomy they need to flourish. A person is any intelligen t being with significant volitional control over how it affects other beings.
All persons have the right to life and liberty. All beings have the right not to suffer torture or extinction. Liberty is volition in the absence of aggression.
Aggression consists essentially of 1 coercion or 2 damage to a person's body, property, or rightful resources. Coercion is compulsion of one person by another through force or threat of aggression. Justice is the minimization, reversal and punishment of aggression.
The purpose of the state is to effect justice, provide aid and sustenance to persons in mortal danger, protect species in danger of extinction, and prevent torture. Autocosmology is a synthesis of metaphysical naturalismontological materialismepistemological empiricism and positivismmental functionalismtheological atheismaxiological extropianismpolitical libertarianismeconomic capitalismconstitutional federalismbiological evolutionismevolutionary psychology, and technological optimism.
Autocosmology is the worldview asserted by this text. Human Answers Most humans justify their answers to philosophy's questions using one of four methods.
Faith is belief based on revelation and exempt from doubt. Mysticism is belief based on private and direct experience of ultimate reality. Skepticism is belief that is always subject to doubt and justified through objective verification. Cynicism is the absence of belief.
Faith is the most common mode of belief in the Western world, where the Abrahamic religions are prevalent. Mysticism is the most common mode of belief in the Eastern world. Skepticism is practiced worldwide with varying amounts of rigor by the minority of thinkers who have been influenced more by science than by tradition.
Cynicism too is practiced by a worldwide minority, often as a simplistic reaction to the rigidity of faith, the emptiness of mysticism, or the relativism of skepticism. A skeptic believes what he sees. A mystic believes what he feels.The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION. Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes . Capacities or attributes common to definitions of personhood can include human nature, agency, self-awareness, a notion of the past and future, and the possession of rights and duties, among others.
However, the concept of a person is difficult to define in a way that is universally accepted, due to its historical and cultural variability and the .
John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government.
“In the general course of human nature, a power over a man’s subsistence amounts to a power over his will.” —Alexander Hamilton, Federalist 79 Libertarianism is a philosophy of individual freedom.
Or so its adherents claim. But with their single-minded defense of the rights of property and. Contrast senryu with benjaminpohle.com also kigo, tanka, haikai, and hokku.. SENSIBILITY, LITERATURE OF: Eighteenth-century literature that values emotionalism over benjaminpohle.com literature tends to perceive feelings as more reliable guides to morality and truth than abstract principles, and thus it tends to view human beings as .