Literature Review Introduction Heart disease is the number one cause of death in the United States and stroke is listed as the fifth cause of death. Sreported a decrease in blood pressure in African Americans.
Gender based violence GBV remains one of the most serious threats to the health and safety of women and girls worldwide. The problem is even more pronounced in refugee populations where women and girls are at increased risk of violence. Despite growing need, there have been few rigorous evaluations of interventions aimed at primary GBV prevention and no systematic reviews of GBV prevention efforts specifically focused on refugee populations; reviews to date have primarily examined prevention of conflict related sexual violence, with very limited focus on other forms of GBV such as intimate partner violence Methods: This study reviewed the scientific literature addressing strategies for primary prevention of GBV and their effectiveness among refugee populations over the past ten years to Study findings indicate that a range of GBV prevention activities recommended by the global humanitarian community are currently being applied in a variety of settings.
However, there remains a limited body of evidence on the effectiveness of GBV prevention programs, interventions, and strategies, especially among refugee populations.
Commonly agreed upon standards or guidelines for evaluation of GBV prevention programming, and publication of evaluations conducted using these guidelines, could assist humanitarian stakeholders to build and disseminate an evidence base of effective GBV prevention interventions, programs and strategies.
Background Gender-based violence GBV remains one of the most prevalent and persistent issues facing women and girls globally 1. The UN General Assembly Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women expanded the scope of GBV to encompass physical, sexual and psychological violence, including threats and coercion occurring within families, in the general community, or condoned by the State 3.
The problem is even more pronounced in refugee populations where women and girls are at increased risk of GBV 567. Several factors have been cited as causing increased risk of GBV including extreme poverty, minority status, lack of access to food and water, and disrupted family and community support systems, among others 8.
The displaced population at risk of GBV continues to grow in parallel with the size of the population displaced by conflict which is presently estimated at Record numbers of displacement were reported in and and it appears that reports will continue with the pattern of increases in the size of population displaced by conflict Much of the displacement has been driven by the continued violent conflicts in Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, and Syria among others A recent commentary in The Lancet discusses the issue of violence against Syrian female refugees, and cites a catastrophic trend of using sexual violence as a tactic of war This is not a new issue, as GBV and particularly sexual violence have long been understood to be a direct consequence of armed conflict 13 The impact of GBV among refugee populations varies by region and context, but may include increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STIs as indicated by studies in DR Congo; depression and post-traumatic stress disorder documented throughout Sub-Saharan Africa; as well as short-and long term health, economic and social sequelae for individuals, families and communities documented in a variety of geographic locations globablly 15161718 Guidelines for Prevention and Response are as follows These seven types of programming reflect recommendations made by the global humanitarian community, and are all examples of primary prevention efforts, that is efforts to reduce the number of new incidents of violence by intervening before any violence occurs.
This approach contrasts with other prevention efforts that seek to reduce the harmful consequences of an act of violence after it has occurred, or to prevent further acts of violence from occurring once violence has been identified Although there has been an increase in the number of programs in refugee populations to prevent and respond to GBV, particularly sexual violence against women and girls, there remains a general lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing diverse forms of GBV, and a lack of evaluation of efforts outside of conflict related sexual violence 23 There have been several review papers published examining the efficacy of GBV prevention efforts, but none have focused specifically on refugee settings where the risks to women and girls may be higher.
For example, a systematic review of reviews published in by Arango et al. Another review by Spangaro et al. Recent evaluations of humanitarian programs have also highlighted the need for evidence on effective GBV prevention strategies.
In response to the continued need for evidence on effective GBV prevention strategies for refugee populations, and in an effort to expand review beyond just conflict related sexual violence, this study aims to provide a review of publications related to GBV prevention strategies recommended by the global humanitarian community for refugee populations over the last ten years.
Methods An integrative review of scientific literature on GBV prevention was initially conducted in and later updated in October using the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science.
The search was limited to studies published in English over the previous ten years i. Key search terms were identified through a preliminary review of relevant literature in consultation with a public health information specialist at the Johns Hopkins University Welch Medical Library.Prevention and control of PPH and its adverse results, has been highlighted as a key point in the literature, in guidelines and documents of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and training of health professionals and midwives, for proper management of the third stage of .
prevention and control program and has expended an average of reviewed published literature, program management records, individual project files, and reports of special studies.
HRD Review of Venereal Disease Prevention and Control Program. Cochrane works collaboratively with contributors around the world to produce authoritative, relevant, and reliable evidence, in the form of Cochrane Reviews.
Family Violence Prevention Fund. Classroom Manual. for English Literature Teachers. L. ESSONS. from. L. your curriculum, please review the Teaching Considerations.
Deepening Our Understanding of Power and Control through Literature ..
12 Part III. Guide to the Elimination of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTIs) In a review of literature by Saint2 on urinary tract infections related to the use of urinary catheters, infection prevention and control are the necessary underpinnings of programs, policies.
Literature Review on HIV and AIDS, Education and Marginalization Prepared by the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education children orphaned by AIDS as there is a body of literature demonstrating that doing so can HIV prevention efforts.
Many of these interventions are relatively recent, with limited.