Unlike most of the Pre-Socratic philosophers who came before him, who were much more interested in establishing how the world works, Socrates was more concerned with how people should behave, and so was perhaps the first major philosopher of Ethics. He is considered by some as the very antithesis of the Sophists of his day, who claimed to have knowledge which they could transmit to others often for paymentarguing instead that knowledge should be pursued for its own sake, even if one could never fully possess it. He made important and lasting contributions in the fields of EthicsEpistemology and Logicand particularly in the methodology of philosophy his Socratic Method or "elenchus".
In the comic play, The Clouds BCAristophanes represents Socrates as a sophistic philosopher who teaches the young man Pheidippides how to formulate arguments that justify striking and beating his father.
Despite Socrates denying he had any relation with the Sophists, the playwright indicates that Athenians associated the philosophic teachings of Socrates with Sophism. Such representations of inter-generational social conflict among the men of Athens, especially in the decade from to BC, can reflect contrasting positions regarding opposition to or support for the Athenian invasion of Sicily.
Socrates left no written works, but his student and friend, Platowrote Socratic dialoguesfeaturing Socrates as the protagonist.
He then defected back to Athens after successfully persuading the Athenians that Persia would come to their aid against Sparta though Persia had no intention of doing so. Another possible source of resentment were the political views that he and his associates were thought to have embraced.
Several of the Thirty had been students of Socrates, but there is also a record of their falling out. During the reign of the Thirty, many prominent Athenians who were opposed to the new government left Athens.
Plato, (born / bce, Athens, Greece—died /, Athens), ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates (c. – bce), teacher of Aristotle (– bce), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence.. Building on the demonstration by Socrates that those regarded as experts in ethical matters did not have the. The trial of Socrates ( BC) was held to determine the philosopher’s guilt of two charges: asebeia (impiety) against the pantheon of Athens, and corruption of the youth of the city-state; the accusers cited two impious acts by Socrates: “failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges” and “introducing new deities”.. The death sentence of Socrates was the legal. The choice was not the selfish one, but the honorable one. He didn't have to stay, as Crito would have arranged escape, but he declined. Socrates believed firmly in "practicing what you preach" as demonstrated by his decision.
This is proved, Waterfield argues, by the fact that after the Thirty were no longer in power, anyone who had remained in Athens during their rule was encouraged to move to Eleusis, the new home of the expatriate Thirty. Socrates simply did not answer this order, nor had he Leon warned, while the other four men did go to Salamis to get Leon.
The totalitarian Thirty Tyrants had anointed themselves as the elite, and in the minds of his Athenian accusers, Socrates was guilty because he was suspected of introducing oligarchic ideas to them.
Larry Gonickin his " Cartoon History of the Universe "  writes, "The trial of Socrates has always seemed mysterious He made several references to his personal spirit, or daimonionalthough he explicitly claimed that it never urged him on, but only warned him against various prospective actions.
Historical descriptions of the trial[ edit ] Wikisource has original text related to this article:IV. Some proposed objections to the Socratic Ethics are as follows.
If evil were never done deliberately or voluntarily, then evil would be an involuntary act and consequently no one could properly be held responsible for the evil that is done.
“Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels: Summary of Chapter 4. This chapter of “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels finally addresses one of the most overriding concerns in any discussion about morality and ethics in general—religion.
Plato is one of the world's best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B.C.E. in ancient Greece. Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is.
Yes, the Manicheans who divided the world into all good and all evil, and who gave us our indispensible term “Manichean” to describe a juvenile belief in nuance-free black-and-white narratives about the world.
Crito is distressed by Socrates reasoning and wishes to convince him to escape since Crito and friends can provide the ransom the warden demands.
If not for himself, Socrates should escape for the sake of his friends, sons, and those who benefit from his teaching. Socrates refuses avoid his death by leaving Athens, although he could flee, but such an escape would be contrary to his moral principles and would be an injustice to the state which was his parent, his education, and the origin of law.